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Deep Earthers

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Elijah Moore
Elijah Moore

Search Results For Worms UPD

Join a "dream team" of invertebrate taxonomists and evolutionary biologists searching for new species around Eastern Antarctica. They'll give you a quick tour of their deep-sea research ship, answer your questions about their work, and more on March 7 at 1 pm ET. The audience for this event is grades 4 to 12, but all are welcome!

Search results for worms

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The U.S. National Science Foundation propels the nation forward by advancing fundamental research in all fields of science and engineering. NSF supports research and people by providing facilities, instruments and funding to support their ingenuity and sustain the U.S. as a global leader in research and innovation. With a fiscal year 2023 budget of $9.5 billion, NSF funds reach all 50 states through grants to nearly 2,000 colleges, universities and institutions. Each year, NSF receives more than 40,000 competitive proposals and makes about 11,000 new awards. Those awards include support for cooperative research with industry, Arctic and Antarctic research and operations, and U.S. participation in international scientific efforts.

Worms are becoming more virulent at the same time as operating system improvements try to contain them.Recent research demonstrates several effective methods to detect and prevent randomly scanning worms from spreading [2, 13]. As a result, worm authors are looking for new ways to acquire vulnerable targets without relying on randomly scanning for them. It is often possible to find vulnerable web servers by sending carefully crafted queries to search engines. Search worms1 automate this approach and spread by using popular search engines to find new attack vectors. These worms not only put significant load on search engines, they also evade detection mechanisms that assume random scanning. From the point of view of a search engine, signatures against search queries are only a temporary measure as many different search queries lead to the same results. In this paper, we present our experience with search worms and a framework that allows search engines to quickly detect new worms and take automatic countermeasures. We argue that signature-based filtering of search queries is ill-suited for protecting against search worms and show how we prevent worm propagation without relying on query signatures. We illustrate our approach with measurements and numeric simulations.

If adult pinworms or eggs are found, the person has a pinworm infection. Usually, all household members need to be treated with medicine. This is because pinworms are easily passed back and forth within a household.

Mejia R, Weatherhead J, Hotez PJ. Intestinal nematodes (roundworms). In: Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2020:chap 286.

You can also search for an author that is not first author by using the wildcard % and last name to find anywhere in the author string. You can select the "remember" button, so that the reference automatically appears the next time you want to link a source to a taxon (helps a lot if you enter many names of a single publication). The system is set so that the accent marks used in author names will not hamper the search (e.g. if you type in Gomez you will get Gómez or Mollmann will get Möllmann).

It is possible that the location is not listed in the drop-down list in WoRMS, but is present in the gazetteer. First search if the location is available in the gazetteer (via the search tool), before you start adding a new location record. If the location is present in the gazetteer, then click on [add to aphia] and the location is added to the drop-down list in WoRMS.

Your key is now added to the Workbench. Click on [Edit key] to edit the key details and to add the citation. Clicking [Preselect sources] allows you to predefine the sources you will use in your ID Key and easily link these sources to a specific character states (See further). You can efficiently search for datasources by using the search format 'Author%YearOfPublication'. Click on "Find" and on the correct datasource to link the source to your Key.

Go to the search tool, and select the action (all, created, changed or checked), indicate the person and if necessary select a begin date. You can further set other items such as limit to species rank, limit to a particular family or valid names only, etc...

For example: Neopycnodonte zibrowii Gofas, Salas & Taviani in Wisshak, Lopez Correa, Gofas, Salas, Taviani, Jakobsen & Freiwald, 2009 The source says: Deep Sea Research I 56(3): 374-404 [published online 29 October 2008; printed copies deposited by January 2, 2009, in several museum libraries as stated in acknowledgements; printed edition of the journal dated March 2009].

Heartworm disease in cats is a bit different than in dogs. Heartworms in cats do not live as long (average lifespan is only 2 to 4 years) or grow as long, and fewer of them mature into adults. Worm burdens are lower in cats than dogs. Usually a cat has only one or two worms. However, due to its relatively small body size, a cat with only a few worms is still considered to be heavily infected.

Not all cats with heartworm disease show symptoms. Some cats are able to spontaneously rid themselves of heartworms without having any symptoms. However, some infected cats die suddenly from heartworm disease without ever showing signs of being sick. Cats with heartworm disease may have very nonspecific symptoms that mimic many other cat diseases. These nonspecific symptoms include vomiting, decreased activity and appetite, and weight loss. Cats with heartworm disease rarely show signs of heart failure.

There is no FDA-approved drug to treat heartworm disease in cats, although symptoms may be managed with medications. Surgical removal of adult heartworms may be a treatment option if the heartworms can be seen by ultrasound. But surgery is risky, and if the heartworms are not removed intact, there can be potentially serious complications, such as shock and death.

Ferrets can also get heartworms from the bite of an infected mosquito. Ferrets are similar to dogs in their susceptibility to heartworm infections, but their symptoms are more similar to those seen in cats.

People cannot get heartworms from their pets. Heartworms are only transmitted by the bite of an infected mosquito. In rare cases, people can get heartworms after being bitten by an infected mosquito. But because people are not a natural host for heartworms, the larvae usually migrate to the arteries of the heart and lungs and die before they become adult worms.

Immunodiagnostic tools detect parasite antigens in faeces (coproantigens). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) that target parasites affecting companion animals (Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum and Trichuris vulpis) [64], the human STHs An. ceylanicum [65] and A. lumbricoides [66] and the cestode Taenia solium [67] have been developed; although, for the latter, cross-reactivity with other cestode species appears to be an issue [68]. ELISA kits are also commercially available; for example, for the detection of liver fluke (F. hepatica) antigens from faeces of both livestock [69] and humans [70]. Results achieved by ELISAs show a strong correlation between coproantigen and copro-DNA levels in stools from individuals with Ascaris infection [66], while the correlations between microscopy-based worm burden and real-time (quantitative PCR [qPCR]) are moderate for hookworm [35, 52] or strong for A. lumbricoides [35, 52] and T. trichiura [52]. It is important to consider that the performance of ELISAs for the detection of coproantigen can be affected by several components in stool samples, including salts, proteases, antibodies and organic compounds, and are dependent on sample preservation and storage; variations in any of these might interfere with antigen detection and lead to false positive or negative results [70]. This also applies to nucleic acid-based methods.

Currently, most of the available PCR-derivative tools target only a small number of helminth species, require suitable laboratory infrastructure (with electricity) and equipment and are usually low throughput, although a few multiplexed attempts offer the advantage of a somewhat higher throughput [38, 74, 75]. These constraints make them less suited to field application settings [76]. To begin to address this issue, recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) in portable battery-operated instruments or loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP)-based tools have been established for field use. Examples include RPA of S. haematobium DNA from genomic DNA from urine [77] and LAMP detection of STHs from nucleic acids extracts from adult worms [78]. To date, most NAATs are based on the amplification of repetitive sequence elements in the genomes of helminths, such as species-specific ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes [39, 74, 79] or genome-wide, tandem repeats [36, 80].

Changes in the composition and function of the host gut microbiome can be exploited in studies aimed at discovering novel infection biomarkers in helminth-infected subjects. In a recent study, Jenkins et al. [136] conducted a metabolomics analysis of faecal samples from a cohort of human volunteers pre-diagnosed with S. stercoralis infection, and compared data with that obtained from a cohort of uninfected individuals from the same geographical area. In this study, faecal extracts from S. stercoralis-infected subjects displayed an increased abundance of selected amino acids (leucine, alanine and lysine) compared with uninfected individuals. Whilst the number of subjects enrolled in this study was limited, and targeted metabolomics techniques (in lieu of broad-spectrum techniques) were applied to the characterization of the set of metabolites in faecal extracts, data from this study appear to provide a sound starting point for the exploration of bacterial secondary metabolites as bystander signatures of helminth infection. In turn, the characterization of worm-associated changes in bacterial and/or host metabolism might lead to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of helminth infections, and thus to the discovery and development of novel and improved treatment strategies aimed at assisting the restoration of gut homeostasis. Whilst faecal metabolites currently represent an untapped source of potential biomarkers for helminth infections, other molecules, such as non-coding short RNAs (e.g. microRNAs) of worms show promise, as reported in recent serological studies of S. mansoni in humans from endemic areas, as well as in rats experimentally infected with S. japonicum [161]. 041b061a72


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